METHODS: We regressed daily hospital admissions to local hospitals for area residents from 1987 through 1994 on particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively); coarse particulate mass; sulfur dioxide (SO2); ozone (O3); and carbon monoxide (CO) in a Poisson regression model with control for time trends, seasonal variations, and temperature-related weather effects. With the exception of seasonally monitored O3, we supplemented incomplete pollutant measures in a multiple imputation model to create a complete time series of exposure measures.
RESULTS: We found an estimated 4-5% increase in the rate of asthma hospital admissions associated with an interquartile range change in PM (19 microg/m3 PM(10),11.8 microg/m3 PM2.5, and 9.3 microg/m3 coarse particulate mass) lagged 1 day; relative rates were as follows: for PM10, 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.08]; for PM2.5, 1.04 (95% CI = 1.02-1.07); and for coarse particulate mass, 1.04 (95% CI = 1.01-1.07). In single-pollutant models we also found that a 6% increase in the rate of admission was associated with an interquartile range change in CO (interquartile range, 924 parts per billion; 95% CI = 1.03-1.09) at a lag of 3 days and an interquartile range change in O3 (interquartile range, 20 parts per billion; 95% CI = 1.02-1.11) at a lag of 2 days. We did not observe an association for SO2.
CONCLUSIONS: We found PM and CO to be jointly associated with asthma admissions. We estimated the highest increase in risk in the spring and fall seasons.
Location of authors: Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-7232, USA
From:Sheppard, L., Levy, D., Norris, G., Larson, T.V., Koenig, J.Q. (1999) Effects of ambient air pollution on non-elderly asthma hospital admissions in Seattle, Washington, 1987-1994. Epidemiology, 10, 23-30.
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